Today, most companies use high-level and object-oriented programming languages to build software applications or computer programs.
Object-oriented programming languages appear to be much easier to design, develop, debug, reuse, and even maintain software than previous programming languages.
In this sense, your business might also need to leverage object-oriented programming languages in your project to create cutting-edge technology or merely maintain the existing software applications to maintain competitiveness.
But what exactly are object-oriented programming languages (OOP)? Which one should you use for your software project? This article will provide you with the answers to such concerns. Also, we will find out the principles of OOP languages and the top object-oriented programming languages most in use today.
What Is Object-oriented Programming Language?
First, what is the programming language?
A programming language is a collection of rules and processes that allow software developers or software engineers to give computers a set of instructions to perform.
Then, what is the OOP language?
Object-Oriented Programming defines as a programming language paradigm that focuses on "objects" in which a set of data attributes and functions combine into a single unit.
The objects are then classified and sorted into classes. Classes will contain each object. In this case, we can define a class as a template for creating and developing an object. A template is an instance of a class. Here you may have noticed that OOP languages depend on classes and objects. It may cause some confusion between the two terms.
Let us put it this way: assuming an object is something tangible and a class is a collection of similar objects then you may need to group objects like "car," "bus," and "motorbike" into a class named "vehicle."
The classes in a program may divide into modules by creating sets of classes that represent and encapsulate the objects in the program. It improves the structure and organization of software applications. Thus, collaboration in the development process has become easier and faster results of classes and their connections, particularly when developing complicated software.
What Is the Structure of Concepts in Object-oriented Programming?
The four fundamental components that constitute the structure of OOP languages are objects, classes, attributes, and functions.
- Classes: This is a component that provides types of data in which it will work as the backbone for particular objects, attributes, and methods.
- Objects: These are examples of a class that operates on its "own" data structure. Anything we perceive is only an object. Objects in this context can represent either real or abstract objects. When creating a class, an object with attributes and behaviors that distinguish one object from another will be defined.
- Functions: They appear within the context of a class to describe the behavior of an object. Each function in a class definition begins by including a reference to an example object. Developers use methods to ensure reusability and to keep functionality encapsulated to a single object at a time.
- Attributes: They will reflect the object's state and relevant data, which will be stored in the object's attributes field. These are specific to the class and described in the class blueprint.
4 Pillars Of Object-Oriented Programming
Object-oriented programming languages (OOP) enable developers to interact with real-world entities practically. Hence, there are four guiding principles for OOP languages. These have characteristics that help to distinguish them and enhance their efficiency. They are:
Encapsulation is the concept of attaching data to functions that perform a security function to keep that data safe. In this context, objects will contain all critical information. And they will be defined separately as classes. These classes cannot be accessed or modified by any other objects. By doing so, the confidential data of objects will be kept safe and secure from the outside world. Only carefully selected data for public release may be made available.
This data hiding feature helps developers to grasp the code quickly, provides a higher level of security, and prevents unintentional data damage.
The most common definition of inheritance is an "IS-A" connection in which developers can structure classes into hierarchies. It enables certain classes to function under the form of other ones. A subclass inherits all of the properties and functionalities of its superclass or parent class while still having the potential to extend that capability with additional code and data.
This feature allows developers to minimize unnecessary work by choosing an existing object that already performs well of what is required and reusing code written in other classes.
In the context of OOP, abstraction is the process of abstracting away the complexities of internal operations and just exposing a user interface that is both clean and simple for the usage of other objects. By hiding any redundant implementation code and focusing on the interface, developers can work more quickly and make further modifications or updates over time. Furthermore, abstraction also benefits the code by isolating the impact of code modifications. As a result, if something goes wrong in the code, the adjustments will only affect the class's implementation details, not the code itself.
The term polymorphism refers to the ability to accept more than one shape. In the context of OOP languages, it refers to the ability to manage objects and take on more than one form based on what they are. In other words, the child objects might not require to react to a query in the same manner as their parent. A new object can replace the methods of its parent by interacting differently with a message. This feature makes coding more flexible, which leads to better code structure in fewer and simpler units.
Top 5 Object-Oriented Programming Languages
Java is well-known as one of the most widely used. Also, Java is an in-demand OOP language for application development in the market today, especially for Android development. It considerably provides the advantage of high-level object-oriented programming languages with modularity software, flexibility, scalability, and an easy development process.
Its motto, "write once, run anywhere," highlights the variety of platforms on which Java can run without the requirement for recompilation. Only a few languages provide such an efficient development ecosystem as Java, where developers have complete access to everything they need to create web apps and software solutions.
Developers can use Java to create a variety of applications. Here are the top Java applications:
• Mobile Applications • Web-based Applications • Enterprise Applications • Embedded Systems • Distributed Applications • Scientific Applications • Business Applications • Desktop GUI Applications • Gaming Applications
The Go, often known as "Golang," is a compiled programming language utilizing similar syntax to the C language. Developed by Google in 2007, Go is a new name in top object-oriented programming languages, even though there are some arguments about whether Go is an object-oriented programming language or not.
At a certain point, you might find no objects or classes. However, Go has established itself as an object-oriented programming language that uses specific comparable structures.
Go provides a standard library that assists developers in managing large codebases, increasing development productivity, and focusing on simplicity and consistency. Aside from that, Go is a super-fast compiler that allows developers to handle multiple tasks at once, which is highly useful for Android development.
For the reasons stated above, the Go programming language will be appropriate for developing web applications, web APIs, system and network programming, micro-services, big data and machine learning, audio and video editing, and other distributed services.
Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language that can use in a wide range of applications. Even though Python codes are not precisely object-oriented, it still founded on oops concepts such as objects, classes, encapsulation, reusable code, and others.
Python has gained popularity due to its readability and flexibility in creating complex processes, especially for data science and machine learning. Aside from that, various libraries are available in the development process, including Django, Scikit-Learn, Theano, Keras, TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Pandas. It allows developers to write simple, concise, and logical code for either small or large-scale software application projects.
Python-based applications include the following: Blockchain Applications, Game Applications Development, Command-line Applications Development, System Administration Applications, Business Applications, Machine Learning Applications, Audio & Video Applications
C++ is an enhanced version of the C programming language meant to introduce the concept of object-oriented programming, which covers ideas such as inheritance, classes, data binding, polymorphism, and encapsulation.
It is a compiled, reliable, and strong general-purpose programming language. Developers use C++ to create compilers and interpreters that compile other programming languages and add real-world capabilities to applications. Using classes and objects in the C++ OOP language allows developers to minimize development time and increase efficiency during the development process.
Most businesses are using the mix of C and C++ to build their operating systems, games, applications, and web browsers. As a result, it is often regarded as the most widely used object-oriented language today.
Real-world C++ applications include the following:
- GUI Based Applications
- Gaming Applications
- Database Software
- Operating Systems
- Browsers like Firefox, Chrome, Safari
- Banking Applications
- Advanced Computation and Graphics
- Cloud/Distributed System
- Enterprise Software
- Embedded Systems
Ruby, similar to Python, is a general-purpose, interpreted, high-level programming language that can run on various platforms. Ruby appeared to be simple, comprehensive, extensible, and portable. Ruby has a pretty simple syntax that anyone who has worked with a modern programming language can learn and use the technology quickly. As the creator of Ruby, Yukihiro Matsumoto (also called Matz), has stated: "Ruby looks very simple in appearance, but is very complex inside, just like our human body."
Ruby is simple to learn and use due to its object-oriented programming language capabilities, particularly with frameworks such as Ruby on Rails. It allows developers to build web applications by leveraging the code library. Instead of developing Ruby applications from scratch, the technology may be used and reused for several projects.
Hence, developers can improve their productivity and reduce the software development time. Indeed, the speed and agility of Ruby enable itself to focus more on rapid software development, making it a viable option for new startups and established small, medium-sized, and large organizations.
The following are some examples of Ruby-based applications:
Mobile application back-end
Content management systems
E-commerce Applications Development
Data Science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence
Command-line Applications Development
Tools for automation, backup, and DevOps
You cannot ignore object-oriented programming languages in today's technology-driven society since they will continue to play a significant part in software development in the coming years.
If you are serious about either becoming a part of this ever-growing field or designing applications and software solutions for your organization, applying OOP will allow for better data structures, scalability, reusability, and saving time in the long run.
Any of the above-mentioned object-oriented programming languages would be a perfect way to start your OOP journey and help your company stay ahead of the competition.
While deciding on the ideal object-oriented programming language for your software project, you may want to look for a reliable software application development company that can benefit you in working on the appropriate programming language and increasing your business productivity.